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  1. W

    U.S. Comeback?

    The $3.50/gallon includes distribution costs and fuel taxes. Does that $0.02/kWh include distribution and taxes? If it does, why do residential consumers pay 6x or more than that? Why is the cost at public EV chargers as much as $0.43/kWh (Electrify America)? Biomass-based fuels are being...
  2. W

    U.S. Comeback?

    Cost includes distribution and current state (average) and federal taxes on diesel fuel. Of course, any tax break for biomass-based diesel fuel would be that much less. The EPA analysis is based on a 50,000,000 gallon/year processing facility (33,200,000 gal/year biomass-based diesel fuel).
  3. W

    U.S. Comeback?

    Aviation uses about 25B gallons/year of jet fuel. There's plenty more available for ground transportation (at least 35B gallons). The biomass fuels can be produced for less than $3.50/gallon, which is now much less than petroleum-based fuels, either diesel or gasoline. Where did you get those...
  4. W

    U.S. Comeback?

    While I agree that long-distance freight should be moved to rail, I still disagree on the biofuels issue. There's not only a very significant supply of biomass sustainably available, there is a very urgent need for a market for much of it. The most important reason why wildfires are becoming...
  5. W

    Who’s going to Tesla after their current TDI?

    There are times (particularly in summer months) when wind flow is weak for many days (persistent ridge directly over region). Weather systems tend to be sluggish during those times of the year.
  6. W

    Who’s going to Tesla after their current TDI?

    You're assuming that sufficient wind energy is always available at all times. I know from experience as an operational meteorologist that wind flow is not always sufficiently strong at night or any other time of the day some days to produce wind-generated electricity (at least in the Southern...
  7. W

    Who’s going to Tesla after their current TDI?

    That may be the case in SPP region, but not all EV are being charged in SPP. Even gas cars are "better" in some regions of the country with respect to some criteria pollutants like PM2.5. https://greet.es.anl.gov/publication-regional_ld_bev
  8. W

    Who’s going to Tesla after their current TDI?

    Yes, it's full life cycle. 183,363 miles defines the lifecycle (15 years useful life assumed). I did a comparison between the Rivian R1T and diesel full-size light-duty pickup trucks (Ram Ecodiesel & GM 3.0 Duramax diesels) based on GREET output and using the PROJECTED 2029 grid mix (17% coal...
  9. W

    Who’s going to Tesla after their current TDI?

    Coal generation increased to about 22% in 2021, after <20% in 2020. https://afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/electric_emissions.html
  10. W

    Who’s going to Tesla after their current TDI?

    I don't disagree, just making the point that coal EGUs are not very efficient. It also depends on the EV range, which effects battery size. In the coal EGU example, a 300 mile-range EV would consume ~4500 BTU/mile (89 kWh battery), while the comparable diesel vehicle would consume ~4900...
  11. W

    Who’s going to Tesla after their current TDI?

    According to the GREET model, the well-to-tank (mine-to-plug) efficiency of a coal-fired EGU is 32.1%, while the efficiency of petroleum-based diesel fuel (ULSD) is 83.6%.
  12. W

    U.S. Comeback?

    Not necessarily... https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/12/11/1482 Agree. Even from an environmental perspective they don't at this time... https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.0c02931
  13. W

    U.S. Comeback?

    Just to be clear, life-cycle assessment (LCA) models include all upstream activity including well drilling, pipeline construction, refining, and transportation to the retailer, as shown in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model diagram:
  14. W

    Biodiesel goes mainstream?

    Yes, you're correct. I remember about that issue now. Thanks.
  15. W

    Biodiesel goes mainstream?

    If I recall correctly, that's a problem with biodiesel (FAME) if stored for extended periods, but not as much with renewable diesel since it's essentially the same as ULSD. Renewable diesel is infinitely miscible with ULSD up to 100%.
  16. W

    Biodiesel goes mainstream?

    The distinction is based on the structure of the fuel molecules. Both are biomass-based diesel fuels. By convention, biodiesel is a fuel that's an ester (fatty acid methyl ester - FAME) which has oxygen in the molecular structure. Renewable diesel is a diesel-range hydrocarbon fuel which has...
  17. W

    Biodiesel goes mainstream?

    95B gallons/year is on the high side of all middle distillate used currently, including jet and diesel fuel. The 4-week average for jet fuel ending December 15, 2021, was ~1.5M barrels/day or about 23B gallons/year use rate if my math is correct. https://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_wpsup_k_4.htm
  18. W

    Biodiesel goes mainstream?

    EIA forecasts that renewable diesel production will grow exponentially over the next several years... https://www.eia.gov/petroleum/weekly/archive/2021/210721/includes/analysis_print.php
  19. W

    Americans are buying Teslas, not EVs, but experts say that's about to change

    Hopefully, some of that excess electricity generation capacity can be used to produce and store the energy as "efuels." At least one company, Prometheus Fuels, is about to produce efuels (CO2-to-fuels) commercially. Synthetic Fischer-Tropsch efuels (jet fuel, diesel fuel and naphtha) can be...
  20. W

    GREET_2021 LCA of Various Vehicle Technologies

    I don't disagree that SCC may be underestimated, but it's the Biden administration that has set that $51/ton CO2 cost, not GREET... https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cost-of-carbon-pollution-pegged-at-51-a-ton/ The GREET model calculates only criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions...
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